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Full text of "How planets and moons were made"

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Hollinger Corp. 
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OW PLANETS 
AND MOONS 
WERE MADE 



PRICE ONE DOLLAR 



By PAUL G. LEWIS 



Copyright, 1915, by Paul G. Lewis 



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WA4,1,I.I01 



AUG 16 1915 



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"* * * it seems unlikely that the ultimate 
verdict will be adverse to the preponderating influ- 
ence of the tide in the evolution of our planet." 
Page 285, The Tides, by George Howard Darwin, 
son of celebrated naturalist, Charles Robert Darwin. 



When scientists directed their investigations to the 
"tides," meteorological as well as astronomical, they were 
entering upon that path which leads directly to the solu- 
tion of how plannets and their respective moons were formed. 
However, these investigations, even though thorough as far 
as carried on, were not extended beyond what I call the 
''standard" tide. The very next step forward opens the 
gateway wide into what has been classed a secret or mys- 
tery. All scientific researches and investigations seemed to 
have stopped at the very door of this fountain of knowledge 
in spite of the fact that no one could fail to see or pass by 
this door. This door opens that very moment the mind 
understands what its eyes see when these behold the frothy 
and foamy waves in rivers, lakes and seas. All have seen 
these capping waves ; and it will be surprising to realize 
what a new radiance of light these waves will shed upon 
the darkened pages of astronomy, when we unfold the 
structure and functions of what I have called the ''repro- 
ductive" tide. 

The Laplacean ring theory, the theory of accretion, the 
theory of fission — all these were laid aside each time they 
were put through the separator of modern thought, for 
these contain no cream of useful knowledge. 

In times past, knowledge consisted largely of the acquisi- 
tion of facts existing in nature; in time to come the bulk 
of knowledge will be that product which the power of 



man's reason will work out from known facts — the pres- 
ent has already entered upon this "era of reason." 

It has been well stated that matter is indestructible, but 
such does not relate to combinations of matter, for these 
have each their beginning as well as their necesary end. The 
sun and all of the planets with their respective moons are 
combinations of matter wherein each is a most highly organ- 
ized body; and this is well attested to by the orderly con- 
duct of orbital movements of planets, interrupted only by 
polite and mathematical recognitions (perturbations) as 
these come into closer contact with each other through 
their powers of gravitation. 

The solar system being occupied by organized bodies, 
had therefore its definite beginning and such will likewise 
have its definite end. It might be said that the solar sys- 
tem was born, now lives and at some time in the far future 
will die — but not its matter. This principle may be more 
easily understood if we were to let solid rocks or hard bricks 
represent matter as being indestructible, whereas houses, 
barns, chimneys, wells, sidewalks and fences constructed out 
of these would in such instances represent the sun and the 
various planets and satellites. Solid rocks or hard bricks 
may be so organized as to bring forth the structures men- 
tioned above ; and it is these structures which have each 
their definite beginning, whereas the subsequent end of each 
merely replaces such rocks and bricks back again into that 
pile from which these may again be retaken for similar 
usefulness in upbuilding other structures. Every structure 
has its beginning and its end, but the rocks or bricks remain 
the same throughout the many changes which combinations 
and destructions of combinations effect. 

All human experiences demonstrate that rocks or bricks 
are by no means in themselves able to create or organize 
into such structures, but that energy, outside energy is 
required to place the rocks or bricks into harmonious rela- 
tionship with the existing laws of nature in order to insure 
stability for at least that length of time for which such 
structures were erected. And so the energy which brought 
forth the planets from Neptune to Mercury and all of the 

— 2 — 



moons, was far from being such as was inherent within the 
matter and space of our solar system. The early evolution 
of our solar system and the incident powers of planetary 
procreation had passed forever from actual view even be- 
fore the era of life on earth. 

It is energy in actual operation which produces changes; 
and this rule is not altered whether such changes relate to 
the upbuilding or the destrutcion of combinations. A struc- 
ture is merely the result or answer or effect of energy applied 
to rocks or bricks wherein each was placed into a certain 
mathematical relationship with reference to all others. In 
a finished structure we perceive only a final product, but we 
do not observe the process which was in operation. This is 
the case with our solar system, for all planets and all moons 
were finished long before the inquiring mind of man asserted 
itself upon earth. It is therefore a useless task to gaze sky- 
ward. 

If energy made matter do work, then let us study energy 
and not the finished product which years ago spent a por- 
tion of its energy and thereby and with it forever hid from 
our eyes the exact process of planetary procreation. It 
takes energy (centrifugal force) for the earth to circum- 
scribe her path annually around the sun ; it takes energy to 
cause vibrations or oscillations of matter to become visible 
to the eye ; it takes energy to cause vibrations from wind and 
string instruments to bring forth musical sounds ; it takes 
energy to form light and heat from and with matter ; it takes 
energy to disturb the atmosphere and it takes energy to dis- 
turb water. Without energy there would be no motion, no 
vibration, no oscillation — all matter would be quiet, dead in 
rest and silence. 

In the common parlance of the street, everybody avoids a 
"dead" one, but all are looking for the ''live" ones, and such 
is right because the latter only are interesting for prospect- 
ive gain or profit, intellectually or otherwise. 

Having thus pointed out the supreme importance of the 
"invisible" energy, whereas matter might be called the inno- 

- 3 — 



cent "visible" victim, I shall here proceed to consider only so 
much relating to energy as applies to the tides. 




Figure 1— STANDARD TIDES 



A standard tide, as represented by Figure 1, consists of 
twelve volumes of water whereof six volumes have been 
forced to occupy only five spaces at the horizontal dotted 
line representing water at the level of rest. This reduction 
of space for six volumes of water causes a portion thereof 
to rise above the level of rest and form what is known as 
the crest, leaving seven spaces at the level of rest to be 
occupied by the remaining six volumes of water, and in con- 
sequence thereof the latter body of six volumes falls below 
the level of rest and is known as the hollow of the wave. 

It will be observed in the passing of a tide through a body 
of water that each particle of such water on the surface will 
at one time occupy a place in the crest, while at another 
such particle will be found in the lowest portion of the hol- 
low of that same tide. 

This furnishes evidence that such particle oscillates up- 
ward and downward between the crest and the hollow. 
However, such is not the only oscillation to which a particle 
is put, for such particle when within the crest has left its 
former place of rest and moved into five spaces, while there- 
after that same particle moved into the seven spaces occu- 
pied by the hollow; in other words, each particle oscillates 
from left to right between five spaces and seven spaces, or 



a distance of two spaces from left to right. This complex 
oscillation has been described in many books treating upon 
the tides, and I am here presenting a drawing of the same 
which shows this combined perpendicular and horizontal 
oscillation. A wave passing from right to left causes each 
particle on the surface to oscillate from left to right in the 
manner indicated by the figure drawn above the hollow 
and by the several approaching waves represented by the 
dotted waves. 

It has taken astronomers thousands of years to formu- 
late Kepler's celebrated law, that 'planets (objects) sweep 
over equal areas in the same time with reference to their 
common centre of attraction; or the speed of a planet (ob- 
ject) sweeping over equal areas, varies as the distance to 
be travelled (the radius vector drawn from the sun to 
the planet sweeps over equal areas in equal times. — Kepler's 
second law.) 




Figure 2— OSCILLATIONS OF STANDARD TIDES 



I will now direct the reader's attention to the figure drawn 
above the hollow of the wave and there present the same 
law in a most comprehensive manner. In that figure the 
areas within A, B, C, and C, D, E, are presumed to be the 
same, but it will be noticed that the distance between A 
and B is about twice as great as that between D and E. 

- 5 — 



Suppose the distance between D and E is one mile, and 
that the distance between A and B is two miles, then if it 
took one minute to travel from D to E, such must be the 
same time when traveling from A to B. But the distance 
between A and B being twice as great as that between D 
and E, will require a speed twice as great between A and B 
than such needed in traveling from D to E. The smallest 
fish pond clothed in little riplets presents to us a physical 
manifestation of that great law whenever we observe the 
quick bobbing of a cork or boat as the same rides each and 
every crest, as distinguished from that longer time needed 
when in the hollow of a wave. 

It is for this very reason that the earth, which is three 
million miles nearer the sun in the winter time than she is 
during the summer months, travels with increased speed. It 
is not only because the earth is closer to the sun, but because 
the distance to be travelled by the earth in winter is greater 
for that same area which the earth covers during the sum- 
mer time. 

This law of oscillation, whether relating to the smallest 
particle of water or whether applied to the largest orbit of 
our solar system does not permit a different rule simply be- 
cause a particle of water is different from Neptune. The 
methods employed are, of course, as different as such particle 
differs from Neptune, but the principle that is involved does 
not vary even in the slightest degree. This also is well 
illustrated by the swing of a pendulum ; thus> it matters little 
whether a pendulum one meter in length oscillates to the 
fullest capacity or whether its oscillations are so slight as 
only to be revealed by the aid of a most powerful micro- 
scope, for in either instance it requires one second of time 
at sea level to complete each oscillation. The areas in the 
case of a swinging pendulum are always the same, the time 
for each certain length of a swinging pendulum is likewise 
always the same, but the speed and that alone will vary as 
the distance to be .traveled. The greater the distance cov- 
ered by the pendulum in its swing the greater will be the 
speed, but the time will be the same as if such pendulum 
covered only the smallest possible distance. 

— 6 — 



In fact, the revolutions of the planets around their com- 
mon center of attraction are merely oscillations on the 
grandest and largest scales possible within a solar system. 
\\> have noted that it takes a standard tide to produce an 
oscillation. The tide travels in a certain straight-line direc- 
tion according to the energy imparted, but the oscillations 
resulting from such passing of a tide, are local and in form 
elliptical. This we have seen is true of the standard tide 
in water, and such must also be true of the standard tide 
in either air or ether. 

The largest standard tide of water known to us is the one 
which results jointly from the moon's corporate attraction 
(gravitation) and the earth's rotation, while the sun's cor- 
porate attraction with reference to such tide is of little 
importance here. The corporate attraction of the moon 
has the tendency to merely distort the surface of the earth 
to the extent of its power, while the rotation of the earth 
furnishes the energy to this distortion so that the same 
assumes the figure of a traveling tide. 

The tide of the moon is, therefore, only a traveling dis- 
tortion. 

\A'hen we consider the small size of the moon with that 
of the sun, it becomes at once apparent that it is due to 
its nearness to the earth which causes its tide to be of such 
greater mass than that produced by the sun. 




Figure 8— REPRODUCTIVE TIDE 



The reader's attention is now directed to that tide which 
I have called the ''reproductive" tide, such as is found in 
operation in a medium of water and here represented by 
Figure 3. Most adults of our nation have seen the capping 
waves, and these have noticed the concave curvature of that 
mass of water leading to the crest — the great force with 
which a portion of water is projected forward, commonly 
called the breaker — the great swell which usually follows 
the passing of such wave as well as the hollow thereof. 

A tide in water is due to energy imparted to such water. 
Water is not able to leave its level of rest unless forced to 
by extrinsic powers. The reproductive tides are the results 
of energy imparted to w^ater by means of winds (tides in 
air). I am not here considering the effect of volcanic or 
subterranean disturbances. 

Every particle of water which is not projected forward 
in the passing of a reproductive tide oscillates in the man- 
ner shown from A to B to D to E and returning again to 
A. The areas within A, B, C, (marked F) and C, D, E, 
(marked f) are presumed to be the same, so that the time 
of oscillations allowed for each particle of water will be the 
same for each of these areas, regardless of their surface dis- 
tances. In other words, a particle of water which requires 
one second to travel from A to B will have the same time 
limit of one second wherein to travel from D to E. But it 
must be noticed that the distance from D to E is approxi- 
mately five times greater than that between A and B ; con- 
sequently the speed will vary accordingly, or the speed re- 
quired in traveling from D to E will be five times greater 
than that between A and B. This maximum speed is devel- 
oped in the tide at that place which in the figure is repre- 
sented by the zone R. 

In the open sea reproductive tides generally run in 
series of three tides whereof the middle one is the most 
highly developed, consequently the most" dangerous one to 
ships. To the observer it would seem as though the mass 
projected came from the mass behind in a manner as though 
such tide became top heavy and fell torward; but such is 



not the case, for the main body of a traveling tide is made 
up of oscillations of particles or volumes of water which are 
supplied by the neutral mass lying immediately in front of 
such tide. It is not the water which travels but the tide; 
and even where shallow water abounds the principle is no 
different even though modified by such conditions. No dif- 
ficulty ought to arise in appreciating the great velocity re- 
quired in the zone *'R" for the building up of such a massive 
tide from the apparently neutral waters, and such zone prac- 
tically sucks up the water which thereupon is backed by 
a mountain of other water behind, so that a discharge at the 
proper time is therefore not only imminent, but unavoidable. 

The earth today presents her mass in a great form of con- 
centration; even the water which is projected forward from 
the zone R at the crest of this reproductive tide is concen- 
trated with reference to its component elements. It is for 
this reason that the corporate attractive power of the earth, 
known as ^'gravity" with reference to her own matter, has 
been increased to the maximum degree of efficiency. This 
principle is better understood when we consider the power 
of 250 million dollars spread over and among one million 
persons, each having $250.00, and then ponder over the 
terrific power which those same 250 million dollars are able 
to exert when concentrated through the interest and profit 
system into the hands of a few men. In the former instance 
the power is the same, but it is spread over such an enor- 
mous space (number) that in its local operations it amounts 
to almost nothing with reference to its whole power, whereas 
in the latter each one deals with the concentrated or whole 
power directly. Gravity acts upon the same principle be- 
cause in the case of a nebular planet the distance from its 
surface to its center of attraction is far greater than such 
would be if that same planet had become a rigid mass. 

The breakers of waves are not dealing with the attractive 
powers of merely those portions of the physical earth which 
lie nearest such waves, but these breakers are dealing with 
the concentrated powers whereof each and every particle 
of the earth has so organized its individual and inherent 
power of attraction that these have become a corporate unit 
to the same extent that the earth presents to us a unit as 

— 9 — 



distinguished from an aggregation of disconnected and unre- 
lated parts or portions. 



16 



® 




Figure 4— THE LAW OF ATTRACTION AT PRESENT 



In Figure 4, "A" represents the surface of a planet ; "B" 
represents the extreme limits or the outer boundary line to 
which particles or objects may be brought against the 
power of gravity by any form of energy generated but domi- 
ciled within the solar system. ''C" represents a distance of 
twice the radius of such planet ; "D" represents three times 
such distance, while '*E" equals it four times. A particle or 
object weighing 1 pound at the surface would when removed 
to "C" weigh approximately V^ pound according to our pres- 
ent knowledge of the law of gravitation. This particle at 
"D" would weigh approximately 1-9 pound, whereas at "E" 
such particle or object would weigh 1-16 pound. To bring 
a particle or object to distances indicated by "C," "D" and 
"E," it would require outside energy — I repeat, OUTSIDE 
energy. This last statement is so very important that I 
desire the reader to embrace that principle fully as much as 
he himself is conscious of his own limited strength. Our 
industrial progress is wholly due to outside strength fur- 
nished by the inorganic forces of nature, such as steam and 
electricity and gasses. 

As long as man relied and depended upon his own physi- 
cal strength and energy he was a barbarian, but as soon 
as he called upon outside energy and made such render 
service for his own benefit, then did he ascend to the loftier 
realms of reason. And so we need not be surprised when we 
learn that a planet of and in and by itself was incapable of 
giving birth to a moon, but that it took OUTSIDE energy to 
do that work and furnish that power together with such 
co-operation afforded by such planet under such circum- 
stances as was needed to populate the solar space with 
smaller luminous bodies for our admiration. 

In considering the creation of the planets of our solar sys- 
tem I will begin at that point at which the sun was the only 
inhabitant therein. 

At such early period of her existnce the sun possessed all 
energy and all matter contained within the limits of our 
solar system. Under such conditions it was as much impos- 
sible for the sun to raise or create a tide of even the small- 
est dimensions upon her surface as it is impossible for a 
man to raise himself up by his boot straps. The entire mass 

— 11 — 



of the sun at that period of her existence was in nebular 
form, but nevertheless constitued a unit, such as I would call 
a "corporate" unit. Another, more concentrated (older) cor- 
porate unit belonging regularly outside of the solar sys- 
tem, but a member of that innumerable constellation which 
adorns the heavens in the sidereal realm, entered our system 
and attracted the mass of our nebular sun and by reason 
of its nearness created a distortion which on account of the 
rotation of the sun upon her axis caused such distortion to 
assume the character and nature of a tide. In other words, 
an older mass of concentrated matter impregnated the sun 
with its attractive power so as to distort her surface, while 
her inherent energy was of sufficient force to combine with 
this distortion and present a new phenomenon, that of re- 
producing a new and independent body of like matter and 
form, but inferior in size. 

There is not a single law in operation or existence in all 
the universe whereof there is not also a material and physical 
demonstration to be found on earth. As long and as often 
as the frothy and foamy waves adorned the surface of the 
sea, so often has the earth declared in physical form and 
manner the entire process which was in operation from the 
time of the sun's conception to the delivery of an inorganic 
offspring, a planet. 




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-i-. 




NEBULAR 

Figure 5 -THE CONCEPTION AND DELIVERY OF A PLANET 

— 12 - 



Figure 5 is almost self explanatory. We have just 
read something about the reproductive tide as the same oper- 
ates in a medium of water; here, however, this tide is con- 
structed through and by means of gravitation which has a 
tendency to distort the surface of a rotating attracted body 
from which latter a discharge is effected by means of a trav- 
eling tide. The particles discharged from the zone R con- 
stitute a homogeneous mass of independent, unorganized and 
unrelated matter. This matter is discharged with energy 
imparted by the oscillations developed in such reproductive 
tide together with that further power added through gravi- 
tation exercised by M, both of which remove such mass be- 
yond the boundary line of F's gravity. 

It is to be noticed that M is traveling in an orbit around 
F in a manner as to describe a "crest of a standard tide." 
This causes M to acquire its maximum speed in its orbit. The 
projected mass K is caused to be carired from a straight 
course toward the crest to a curved one in the proportion 
that the powers of gravitation among these three bodies 
shift from the vertical direction of the crest to an angle of 
about 45 degrees with reference to F. The body M in its 
tide-line orbit thereafter recedes rapidly from F, and to a 
much greater extent than K is able to follow in its effort 
to overcome the power of gravitation now subsisting and 
exercised betwen it and F. This turning of K from the 
vertical direction of the crest of M's orbit toward one which 
eventually will be at right angle to the line of F's gravitation, 
causes a rolling from west to east and a rounding up of the 
mass of K, and at the same time imparts increased energy 
through M's gravitation which thereafter inures to the bene- 
fit of the propelling power (centrifugal force) of K. This 
rolling of K results also in an organization of its mass, facili- 
tated to a large extent by easy radiation of heat; and such 
rolling constitutes the beginning of the rotation of K upon an 
axis. Thereafter K is ingeniously (scientifically and mathe- 
matically) abandoned by M; (strange that inorganic nature 
compels its mothers to raise their own children?). Under 
the continued power of F's gravitation, K describes a circle 
around F which varies in form as the distances from their 
centers. 

— 13 — 



The whole process of planetary reproduction may be 
stated in popular language to consist of a standard tide- 
crest invading the domain of F (female) upon which M 
(male) is traveling, and brought sufficiently close to F as to 
impregnate her with his gravitating power, causing a repro- 
ductive tide upon her surface with sufficient force to cut the 
inorganic umbilical cord (line of gravity) and expel K (kid) 
into the realm of ether as an infant inorganic oftspring. 

The mathematical requirements of gravitation between M 
and F to result in the production of K, in my opinion, must 
be that M possesses a greater mass and a far greater degree 
of concentration than such constituting F. The mass of F 
to be productive must be nebular to a large and definite 
extent, even though possessing a nucleus of molten matter, 
whereas the mass of M may have been cooled in toto to a 
molten mass emitting a dark red glow or none whatever from 
its surface. Although the volume of M may be consider- 
ably smaller than that of F, yet with a greater mass highly 
concentrated into a molten or liquid substance, the power 
of gravitation exercised by M may be infinitely greater than 
that of F. In this way every planet was born; and in like 
manner every moon and satellite was delivered into the solar 
realm of ether by its inorganic mother planet. The rings 
of Saturn are the result of an unsuccessful attempt to have 
brought forth an inorganic offspring. The gravitating pow- 
ers in that case produced a continuous discharge of a homog- 
eneous mass of nebulae from the resultant distortion into 
the near space beyond so that by reason of Saturn's rotation 
such mass encircled the entire surface in the direct line of 
gravitation. 



— 14 







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FiGURK 6— PICTORIAL VIEW OF INORGANIC CO v FOR ATE 
PROCREATION 

In Figure 6 the man moving and rolling the newly deliv- 
ered mass represents that oscillating power which a repro- 
ductive tide develops at its maturity, thus forcing all matter 
in the zone *'R" to be expelled. The zone "R" is the vent for 
surplus energy which can not take part in the formation of 
such tide. Every structure whether of man or nature has 
its definite capacity as well as its definite time of duration. 
A storm has not the ability to build up a mountain of water 
proportionate to its moving power, but such structure of 
water is a scientific structure which takes care of its sur- 
plus energy in a mathematical manner whenever the full 
limit of growth has been reached. When a tide has reached 
its maximum heighth and dimensions then a greater amount 
of energy will not increase such tide, but merely hasten dis- 
charges through greater tidal speed. Nature's waste is a 
most scientific waste because it is mathematical. Particular 
notice is directed to that power developed in the zone "R," 
which thrusts out and attempts to release all that mass 
which cannot participate in the building up of its tide. The 
two men stationed near the upper left hand corner represent 
that greater power exerted by the comet-body in attracting 
the offspring to itself, whereas the lower man fleeing from the 
offspring and its inorganic mother represents the final de- 

— 15 - 



crease in the power of gravitation becoming less and less as 
such comet-body nears the outer limits of our solar sj^stem. 

All scientific researches have shown that an astronomical 

standard tide is destructive, because through tidal friction it 
retards the rotation (upon the axis) of a planet or satellite. 

If such a standard tide is destructive then a reproductive 
tide due to greater energy must be more destructive. A 
standard tide does in no way destroy the organization of 
its mass, but only attacks the operation thereof, whereas a 
reproductive tide assails and attacks the very organization 
of such mass by destroying it in part. 

Each planet merely represents the physical result of a 
special destruction of the organized mass of the sun to the 
extent of such planet, while each satellite represents the 
physical result of a special destruction of the organized mass 
of its respective primary to the extent of such satellite. Like 
the power of the astronomical standard tide known to be 
destructive only in a most mathematical manner — so the 
power of an astronomical reproductive tide operates only pur- 
suant to the most mathematical calculations in tearing off 
and thrusting a portion of its mass into space to assume 
henceforth an independence for a long time, so far at least, 
as mass is concerned. 

In conclusion, let me call the reader's attention to the fol- 
lowing facts. The law governing the revolutions of plan- 
ets and the law of oscillations of particles of water are the 
same in so far as we have noticed that in both instances 
these travel over equal areas in the same time — or their 
speeds vary as the distances to be traveled. 

There is no complete law to be found in operation in 
the solar realm which could give us the process of plane- 
tary procreation (for that age in evolution is gone), but 
there are two splendid fragments of that law which when 
put together furnish strong evidence in favor of the theory 
I expound. Thus, we know that the moon produces a stand- 
ard tide of enormous dimensions ; in other words, we know 
that the moon possesses the power of attraction which pro- 

— 16 — 



duces such tide. We know that if such moon were many 
thousand times greater in mass, that then a tide of greater 
dimensions would be experienced on earth, but just what 
that tide would be cannot be ascertained from the solar 
realm, so that it will become necessary to enter such other 
realm wherein we may find the principle thereof in opera- 
tion. 

We know that a gentle breeze causes a standard tide in 
water ; we know that a strong wind will cause a reproductive 
tide in water ; in other words, a certain amount of energy 
will produce one kind of a tide whereas a greater amount of 
energy will produce a difl:*erent kind of a tide. 

It is here on earth that the entire principle of planetary 
procreation is to be found in full operation, although the 
methods of execution vary even as the strong wind upon 
the medium of water difters from a strong power of attrac- 
tion (gravitation) acting upon a nebular mass. 

If a definite amount of energy whether through the power 
of attraction such as the moon's, or through wind, pro- 
duces a standard tide, then a greater amount of energy must 
produce a greater effect whether through the power of at- 
traction such as exercised by a mass many thousand times 
that of the moon's, or whether through the power of wmd 
many thousand times greater than that of the gentle breeze, 
there cannot possibly be two dift'erent results where the in- 
crease is proportional in both; both must produce the same 
kind of a tide, a reproductive tide. If, therefore, the princi- 
ple of procreation is to be found in operation in the medium 
of water, then we have also found that principle which ap- 
plies to nebula for planetary procreation. The law of gravi- 
tation corroborates my theory with reference to the power of 
attraction which was needed for the production of a repro- 
ductive tide composed of nebular matter situated within our 
solar system, while the comets in describing elliptical orbits 
(wherein, according to our observations the sun was one of 
the focci,) furnish further corroborative proof. 



— 17 - 



Put these two fragmentary laws of nature together and 
you have reasonably well established the cosmogony of our 
solar system. 

Again, our whole solar system is not an independent part 
or portion of the universe, but by comparison represents 
less than a drop of water with reference to our mighty 
oceans. Our solar system is merely a very small and in- 
significant wheel in that vast machinery constituting the 
Universe. All inherent energy operating within our solar 
system came from and still is a part of the energy of the 
universe, so that its orderly relationship connecting it with 
that universe need not be viewed with surprise when it be- 
comes necessary to include also other products (suns) and 
their energies as necessary factors and actors in the erec- 
tion and construction of planets and moons within such solar 
system. 

It would indeed be contrary to the mathematical con- 
struction of the universe to have a dependent part thereof 
possess sole power of performing independent duties ; and 
such would necesarily be required whenever an efifort is 
made to show that something was made out of "nothing" ; 
thus, primitively all energy inherent in our solar system 
was vested in the sun ; however, at that time it took all of 
such energy for the conservation of the organization of such 
nebular unit, and therefore such sun had nothing left in the 
form of energy wherewith to create other similar bodies out 
of her own material. For such purposes, therefore, the sun 
had nothing — yet the planets were made nevertheless ; could 
this "nothing," which the sun had, bring forth this "some- 
thing" which is known to be planets? 

When scientists will consider our solar system as much 
a dependent part of that great unit — the universe, as these 
do now recognize the wonderful mechanical system in opera- 
tion whereby all planets and their respective satellites are 
firmly bound by the laws of gravitation to their central nu- 
cleus, the sun — then will these scientists appreciate that our 
whole solar system, representing merely an infinitestimal 

- 18 - 



part, yet having an individuality, nevertheless constitutes 
an inseparable ''organ" belonging to and being a part of 
that enormous "body," the universe. 



— 19 




• MERCURY 

• VENUS 

• EARTH 

• MARS 




JUPITER 




SATURN 



URANUS 
NEPTUNE 



New Americanized Encyclopedia Britanica, Volume 1, page 586. 



For the purpose of actually picturing the relations of the various 
members of the solar system to his mind, the reader may conven- 
iently use Sir. J. Hirschel's illustration as follows: 

Choose any well-leveled field. On it place a globe two feet in 
diameter to represent the SUN. 

MERCURY will be represented by a grain of mustard seed, on 
the circumference of a circle 164 feet in diameter for its orbit (82 
feet from the two-foot globe). 

VENUS, a pea, on a circle 284 feet in diameter (142 feet from the 
two-foot globe). 

EARTH a (somewhat larger) pea, on a circle of 430 feet (215 
feet from the two-foot globe).. 

MARS a rather large pin's head, on a circle of 654 feet (327 feet 
from the two foot globe). 

THE ASTEROIDS grains of sand, in orbits of from 1000 to 1200 
feet (500 to 600 feet from the two-foot globe). 

JUPITER, a moderate sized orange on a circle of half a mile 
(1320 feet from the two-foot globe). 

SATURN, a small orange on a circle of four-fifths of a mile (2112 
feet from the two-foot globe). 

URANUS, a full sized cherry, on a circle more than one and a 
half miles (about 4000 feet from the two-foot globe). 

NEPTUNE, an extra sized cherry, on a circle two and a half miles 
in diameter (6600 feet from the two-foot globe). 



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